12 Anime for Kids 12 Years and Younger

Although Western cartoon television shows rule that category, there are several anime with various themes that are also perfect for children looking for something different to watch.

These are twelve of the best anime for children 12 years and younger.

1. Pokémon
Also called Pokémon: The Series, it’s one of the longest-running anime that is also popular for its video game series. Pokémon might be about collecting pocket monsters and battling other trainers, but it also teaches kids how to value losses, victory, and friendship.

2. Doraemon
This funny series introduces the robotic cat Doraemon and his friend Nobi Nobita, who always finds himself in trouble because of his laziness and irresponsible behavior.

3. Digimon: Digital Monsters
Set in a parallel universe, the digital monsters are creatures that can be raised and tamed by selected children who are destined to destroy the evil humans and digimon.

4. Sonic X
Based on Sonic the Hedgehog game series, this 78-episode anime will introduce your child to some of the famous characters from the Sonic series as they try to save the world from Doctor Eggman.

5. Cardcaptor Sakura
This 70-episode series is perfect for kids who are interested in magic. In the anime, the child is introduced to Kinomoto Sakura, who discovers a set of magical cards that possess unique abilities when activated.

6. Yo-Kai Watch
If your child has played the video game version of Yo-Kai Watch or is a fan of the Pokémon franchise, he/she will also enjoy this anime series, where the child is taught to make friends with yokai haunting the city.

7. My Neighbor Totoro
Satsuki and Mei moved into a new house, so they can visit their sick mother at the hospital more often. Little did they know that their new home was inhabited by dust creatures.

8. Wolf Children
This heartwarming story tells about the struggles of a young mother who has to raise her half-human half-wolf children safely. Growing up, Ame and Yuki, will have to choose between two different worlds.

9. Princess Tutu
This 26-episode series takes elements from fairy tales such as the “Swan Lake” and “The Ugly Duckling.” It tells the story of Duck who becomes Princess Tutu to bring back Prince Mytho’s heart.

10. Yumeiro Patisserie
Translated as Dream-Colored Patisserie, this 50-episode series features a young girl trying to learn how to become a pastry chef by continuously improving her skills.

11. Hamtaro
Known alternatively as Tottoko Hamutarou, this series has 296 episodes in Japanese and 105 in English. It also comes with manga and children’s novels that your kids will enjoy.

12. HeartCatch PreCure!
This 49-episode series is reminiscent of Sailor Moon and is part of the Pretty Cure series, both of which you can also recommend to your child if he/she enjoys magic, flowers, and fairies.

What You Need to Know About Malaria

Malaria is considered one of the world’s deadliest diseases that primarily affect children. Although most countries affected by malaria are more prepared for the illness in the past several years, lack of information and limited access to healthcare are often the cause of fatal malaria incidents. Although Singapore has better healthcare programs than most affected countries, families still need to be aware how the disease affects the body and how it can be prevented, especially when traveling to other affected regions.

These are some of the things you need to remember about malaria.

Primary Transmission of Malaria
Malaria is transmitted from the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito which carries any one of the five Plasmodium parasites. When an individual is bit by a carrier mosquito, the parasite is released into the person’s bloodstream and travels to the liver. After 2 to 4 days, the Plasmodium matures in the liver and infects the red blood cells, causing them to multiply uncontrollably and burst.

There are Other Ways to Get Infected
However, getting bitten by a carrier mosquito isn’t the only way to contract malaria. An affected mother can pass on the disease to the child at birth, which is called congenital malaria; and an individual can also get infected after an organ transplant, transfusion, and the sharing of syringes or needles. Why is this possible? The Plasmodium parasite primarily resides in the bloodstream, that is why it can also be transmitted through infected blood.

Symptoms Similar to Other Mosquito-Borne Illnesses
The symptoms of malaria are similar to other mosquito-borne diseases, such as dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya. However, some symptoms might show up after several months instead of the one- to four-week period after the initial infection. Some of the symptoms include high fever, chills, headache and nausea, vomiting, muscle pain, convulsions, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and sweating.

Malaria has No Vaccines
Travelers are advised to observe caution when traveling to countries that are affected by malaria. Unfortunately, there is no effective way to prevent malaria, although medications might be prescribed to provide some sort of protection. Those who live in areas where the disease is common are advised to use bug sprays with DEET and to keep their home free from mosquitoes.

Treatment Can Be Tricky
Treatment of malaria is based on the type of parasite that has infected the individual. However, there are cases where a resistance develops, that is why doctors must be careful when prescribing medication. Although early treatment is successful in most cases, those who have developed complications from the disease are more likely to suffer from long-term health problems, such as brain damage from cerebral malaria. Drug-resistance can also create problems in some patients, because they are at risk of malaria recurrence.

What Makes a Superfood So Super?

You may have heard of news stories referring to the benefits that these foods provide to your body on the Internet, and more and more foods are being added to the list of these supposedly really healthy foods.
The term isn’t an official label, unlike what is classified as “organic” – any food can simply be given this classification of superfood.

What Superfoods Are
Superfoods are essentially food items that have a really high amount of nutrients, vitamins and/or minerals. They also contain other special properties, such as antioxidants, healthy fats, and special enzymes that lower the chances of different types of disorders and chronic diseases.

Some examples of superfoods you probably already know about include fruits, vegetables, and honey. The first two are extremely high in antioxidants, fiber, and other nutrients that your body needs in order to stay healthy. In fact, most of the fruits and vegetables you regularly encounter and consume already fall in this category.

The next category is honey: not only does it not expire, but it also has a high amount of antioxidants. The only downside to honey is that it contains very little water, is highly acidic, and comes in many different varieties, brands, and concentrations.

What Superfoods Aren’t
Superfoods, as much as they have their health benefits, they are not meant to be consumed alone. The same can be said for their nutrient content and value as they need to work in conjunction with other chemicals, nutrients, and enzymes in order for your body to use them effectively.

Superfoods should also not be substituted for a healthy and balanced diet, as well as a shift towards a healthier lifestyle. No matter how much of one type of superfood you consume, it would still not be enough to balance an unhealthy lifestyle or a diet that’s rich in unhealthy fat and high sodium content.

A healthy diet and lifestyle, along with lots of water, exercise, and rest, is what you really need to not just get in shape but also to live longer. In fact, most dieticians would prefer to discuss “super diets” instead of superfoods.

Should You Buy Them Anyway?
Ultimately, the answer on whether you should buy superfoods depends on whether you actually want to. The nutrients that they advertise are already found in existing healthy foods and even certain dietary supplements, from black raspberries, tomatoes, and broccoli, to walnuts, garlic, and even lentils and black pepper.

Hundreds of studies already show that certain foods that are high in vitamins, minerals, and other types of nutrients can help the body protect and repair itself, from replenishing damaged cells to preventing the formation of cancer cells and tumors.

5 Tips for Making Awesome Homemade Ice Cream

Everybody loves ice cream. It’s an amazing dessert, and one of the things that makes it awesome is that it can be paired with almost any ingredient to give it a different flavor. And what better way to enjoy it at your leisure than to make it yourself at home?

It can, however, be tricky to achieve the perfect balance between firmness and creaminess at the first try, and it will take a few more tries to get that balance. But don’t worry – here are some tips you can use to make awesome homemade ice cream:

1. Always use a solid sweetener
One of the biggest complaints and problems about homemade ice cream is that it gets hard and develops ice crystals when they are stored in the freezer. This is why most traditional methods used in making ice cream involve keeping ice crystals from forming.

Using solid sweetener, such as sugar or evaporated cane juice, is one way to keep these ice crystals from forming. Another is to use alcohol to lower the freezing point, but this may instead give them the taste of alcohol.

2. Bring air into the mix
If you’re wondering why homemade ice cream tends to be heavier and less fluffy compared to commercial brands, the secret lies in the air. This is because ice cream is sold commercially by volume, and is why most manufacturers whip the cream to bring as much air as possible.

3. Keep the custard chilled extremely well
You will often find many recipes having you cook custard out of eggs, sugar, and milk. If you do choose to follow this recipe (part of the process involves making whipped cream, if you don’t already have it), be sure to keep the custard chilled thoroughly.

Some recipes would even recommend allowing the custard to “age” overnight. This introduces air into the mixture, which helps in producing smooth, creamy ice cream.

4. Use a cool place to churn your custard
If you have to churn your custard to make whipped cream, be sure to do it in a cool place. Avoid doing it next to a heat source, such as a working stove or when the temperature in your kitchen is high overall.

5. Don’t start out with the best ingredients
Ice cream is only as good as the ingredients that go into it. However, if this is your first time making this sweet treat at home, not everything has to be fresh. You can start off with standard, generic ingredients: cold milk, vanilla extract, condensed milk, and salt.

Once you perfect the technique that comes into making the right consistency for ice cream, start working with the more expensive ingredients.

The Best Indian Restaurants in Singapore for Your Next Food Trip

Indian cuisine is more than just a serving of classic curry and na’an. There are so many delectable Indian food options you can try the next time you visit an Indian restaurant, with a myriad of complementing flavors bursting in your mouth. Spice lovers can always count on Indian food to fire up their taste buds, too. The spicy kick never fails to fuel up one’s appetite for the meal!

If you’re still undecided where to head over for your next food trip with your pals, here are some of the best Indian restaurants in the city state:

1. Tiffin Room
Tiffin Room is considered one of the most sophisticated Indian places in Singapore – located within the revered Raffles Hotel. This establishment has been running for more than a century now, and notably provides guests with the best Anglo-Indian dining experience they can ever hope for. Their lunch and dinner buffets are well-loved by patrons; specializing in North Indian food items such as naan, spicy chutney, and chicken tikka masala.

2. Rang Mahal
Dining at Rang Mahal might be pricey compared to other Indian restaurants; but the broad wine menu, impeccable service, and gorgeous interior is worth it. You can even say there’s nothing like dining at this place after enjoying a meal at Rang Mahal. All factors just add up to make your dining experience one of a kind. They serve classic Indian food with a contemporary flair. One of their best sellers is the: Tandoori Portobello, prepared in a classic Indian tandoori oven.

3. Chat Masala
This cosy Indian place is known for serving great North and South Indian dishes, as well as fusion dishes for over a decade now. Their must-try food items include the Mysore mutton pot and the butter chicken (perfect to pair with their crowd-pleasing garlic na’an). You’re in for an epic gastronomic delight until the dessert part – with classics such as Kulfi being given a brand-new exciting take.

4. Maziga
If you’re particularly keen on Indian street food, then this is the place to be! Maziga is famous among party-goers who love to snack on light bites while enjoying a drink. Their menu features Indian street food dishes – such as the crispy masala pasta, soft shelled crab with tandoor-smoked salad, Amritsar fish and chips, and the Punjab naan pizza.

5. Komala Vilas
There is nothing as good as homecooked food, and Komala Vilas is known to serve authentic and homecooked Indian food. The dining experience at this Indian place is cozy enough to make diners feel like they’re enjoying their meals at home. Their vegetarian fare remains unchanged all throughout its 67-year history.
Their menu highlights hearty Indian cuisine at its best; from parata (flatbread) and idli (steamed rice cake), to 40 different types of dosai (lentil with rice flour pancakes) served with chutney and sambar stew.

Different Types of Curry to Try in Singapore

There is nothing in the world a good bowl of curry cannot solve. While this dish is well-loved by people across the globe, Singaporeans also have a soft spot for this rich and spicy dish. Given Singaporean cuisine’s diverse background of ethnic influences – it’s not a surprise to know that curry is served in several variants throughout the city-state.

If you’re planning to visit Singapore soon, their unique plates of curry are definitely a must-try! This is truly a delightful experience for foodies. Here are some of the famous variants of curry in SG:

• North Indian curry
North Indian cuisine has recently found its way in Singapore, with the North Indian curry being one of their front-liners. The dish is not exclusively served in curry shops too, as coffee shops begin to serve this type of curry at a justifiable price. This type of curry provides diners with more choices – from palak paneer (ground spinach curry) to butter chicken curry. The curry is also notably more flavorful; with its thick stew rich in various herbs and other ingredients.

• South Indian curry
Arguably the most popular curry in Singapore, South Indian curry is loved by both locals and tourists alike – and it is also one of the cheapest curry you can avail in the city-state. It is often served with a side of Nasi Biryani, which is a type of Indian spiced rice. The stew is more stewy and is packed with meat and a generous serving of vegetables like zucchini, potatoes, and carrots. The South Indian curry is a perfect one-course meal to be served with rice, or if you’re looking for alternatives, you can enjoy it with bread as well!

• Chinese curry
With lots of Chinese influences infused into Singapore’s local cuisine, it’s no wonder there’s a Chinese variant of curry. This type of curry is said to be similar with the taste of South Indian curry, but far simpler. It is described as meaty in flavor, with a pervading hint of coconut milk. This curry dish also leans close to a soup dish – with a watery gravy and chunks of meat, potatoes, and carrots.

• Japanese curry
The Japanese also love curry and they have since cooked the dish with a flavor of their own. In fact, this unique kind of curry is also well-loved in Singapore. The Japanese curry is a flavorful stew of vegetable chunks, normally eaten alongside steamed rice. The stew is thickened with starch, which also gives it a smoother mouthfeel and texture. With its aromatic spices and sweet vegetables, the Japanese curry deserves a spot under your food trip in SG list!

• Malay curry
If you love Malay food, the Malay curry is something you shouldn’t miss out on during your trip! The dish is usually served at stalls specializing in Malay food (such as the Nasi Lemak and Nasi Padang) stalls. The taste of this kind of curry is similar to that of South Indian curry, but usually more of stews, vegetables, and meat. The texture is also remarkably thicker.

3 Considerations When Writing an Opinion Article

Writing about opinionated topics or blogging as we all know is something a lot of us like to do for fun. But how can you write about opinionated topics professionally? Well, this leaves us the question as to what differentiates amateur bloggers from professional ones. Getting you opinion valued is something that we would all like to do. Besides, who doesn’t want to be heard right?

Here’s the thing, opinions can be good but they can also be very destructive depending on how you construct your opinion and your opinion itself. We can most definitely differentiate constructive opinion and destructive opinions once they are expressed at an extreme but what if they intertwined together? What if the difference isn’t that far from each other? How would we differentiate it then?

Here’s a couple of ways to write about constructive opinion:

1. Audience
Knowing what type of audiences you are trying to reach is very important as you might want to reach a specific audience but the content and the construction of your writing may be for another. For example, you want to give your opinion on foods that are safe for kids and your target audience is the mothers, if you as if you were talking directly to the kids, the mothers wouldn’t really be able to fully digest it and vice versa. If your target audiences are young but you are writing as if you are writing to older people, the youth won’t be able to appreciate it. Know your target audience.

2. Structure
Be very careful in structuring your writing. Your opinion may be there but if your structure is not correct, it may be misunderstood. This is definitely something you don’t want to happen. Give importance to the structure of your writing and you’ll be able to communicate your opinion better towards your audience. The scariest part of putting your opinion out there is it might be taken out of context or even used against you. This is something you should definitely avoid. Keep this in mind when you are writing.

3. Authenticity
The authenticity of your writing is very important. Make sure that even if you are sharing your opinion, it is still backed up by sufficient facts and research. Be careful with what you put out there. Make sure your opinion is well structured and that you are ready to back yourself up in case there are those critics who disagree with what you say. Depending on the subject at hand, people will handle it differently. If your subject is too complicated, then expect a greater level of criticism compared to that subject which is simple and easy to digest.

Give importance to your opinion and treat yourself like a professional, others will start to do the same.

How to Choose a More Fulfilling Career

Picking out your career will always be a difficult thing to do. No career starts off smooth sailing. When we decide to take that first step into actually planning our lives out, we can’t help but think about the career path ahead of us.

A career is very important not just when it comes to finances but also other aspects of your life because let’s face it, your career will become half of your life. All those office hours spent shouldn’t be wasted on something that eats you up inside, they should be spent on something that not only makes you satisfied but also helps you grow.

Taking that plunge into a certain career may be a tough choice to make, here are some tips for you to pick a career:

1. Know your strengths. Your strengths are always something you should be aware of. The problem with this though is that some people tend to become over confident in their strengths when they are but a small needle in a hay stack compared to others. This shouldn’t discourage you though. Know your strengths and know how strong your strengths actually are.

2. Know your weaknesses. Don’t hide your weaknesses and don’t hide your insecurities, acknowledge them! One of the best ways to improve yourself is to work on your weaknesses. Face them head on. Your weaknesses do not have to drag you down at all, instead, they can motivate you to work harder!

3. Know what makes you different. Everyone has something different than others. We don’t mean to say better or worse, we mean different. Get to know what makes you unique and stand out and use that to your advantage! Don’t settle for just being good, you should strive to become incomparable in a good way.

These three steps might help you build yourself up but they don’t necessarily help you pick a career. Here are four steps that will:

1. Who: Who do you want to become? Is it a great leader? A skilled professional? A powerful connection? Or maybe even a humble genuine person? That is entirely up to you. Find out who you want to become as a person

2. What: What do you see yourself doing? This is the most common question asked around but this does not mean that it isn’t important. Check with yourself and find out what you want to do.

3. When: Or easier asked, what is your timeline? Do you want to be working for the rest of your life or do you have a specific age where you want to retire?

4. Where: Where do you see yourself? In an office? On the field? In a kitchen? This is something that is easy to answer so you shouldn’t over think this one.

6 Important Questions to Ask your Cardiologist

On your next appointment with your cardiologist, it is important to know how to maximize the time and make the most out of your visit. Have your heart-related questions answered during your visit to the cardiology center, and at the same time ensure you’ll be receiving nothing but the best care possible in Singapore.

If you’re still clueless as to how you can prepare for your appointment, having a list of necessary questions is a good starting point. This serves as your guide to maximize the consultation period given by your heart specialist. It is also important to establish clear and open communication lines with your heart doctor to avoid any misunderstandings in the long run.

Knowing what to do first is one thing, but knowing what to ask is another. For you to figure out which questions are necessary to ask, you must first consider your personal circumstance.

Personal medical history

To get the conversation started, make sure you provide the necessary information regarding your personal medical history. The discussion you’ll be having with your cardiologist will largely depend on the information you’ll be providing them. It is also encouraged to bring a list of the medications you are currently taking (if there are any), as well as have a thorough knowledge on the family’s history of heart diseases or other similar conditions.

The best cardiologist is ideally well-versed in asking you the crucial questions, but you are also entitled to raise some concerns of your own. Your heart doctor can’t do all the talking all by themselves. Ask relevant questions every once in a while. Keep in mind that knowing your options and the risks or benefits entailed can help you avail the best treatment possible.

Getting screened by Singapore www.harleystreet.sg/blog/heart-health-get-screened-by-a-good-cardiologist-in-singapore/ and raising your concerns to your heart doctor are the best ways to understand the heart screening process and your overall condition better. Here are some of the key questions you can raise during your next appointment with your heart specialist:

1. What type of heart condition do I have?

If you are found to have an existing heart disease, it is crucial to find out the name of the condition. Heart diseases can be varied – from Acute Coronary Syndrome to Ventricular Tachycardia. Having a professional explain your case to you would be vital in understanding the condition better.

This would also allow you to do your own research about your own circumstance. Accordingly, doing so will also allow you garner relevant information that’ll make you handle the case better in the future.

2. Do I need to undergo further tests?

Sometimes, undergoing a simple heart screening procedure might not be enough. There are complicated cases which require patients to take further tests for your cardiologist to pinpoint and diagnose the problem accurately. That said, there is a possibility that you may be referred to additional tests other than the initial examination.

The tests would largely depend on your current condition, but some of the most common further cardio examinations include an: echocardiogram, EKG, chest X-ray, CT scan, and a stress test.

3. What lifestyle changes can I make to improve my condition?

An unhealthy lifestyle can be notorious for triggering and causing certain heart conditions in some. For instance, people who are obese and heavily smokes on the daily are found to be more at risk with certain heart diseases.

While a poor heart health might spring from several poor lifestyle factors, it’s better to be honest with your cardiologist in Singapore about it to gain accurate advice for necessary improvements. While it depends on your personal circumstances, you are likely to be encouraged to: reduce stress, lose some weight, stop smoking, or avoid overeating.

4. Are there signs and symptoms to look out for?

Ask your cardiologist if you are at risk of a heart attack. Whether it is of mild or acute nature, it is crucial to be aware of the warning signs at all costs. This would allow you to prepare for the worst and get some immediate help ready in times of distress. The signs and symptoms largely vary between genders and your own personal history, but your cardiologist can brief you with that necessary information.

Knowing the signs you could experience in the long run helps you learn how to react and deal with your condition.

5. What are the risks linked with my condition?

Each heart condition poses certain risk factors you must crucially take into account. While some of them involve inconveniences such as migraine and fatigue, other serious heart conditions may be lethal. Be sure to ask your heart doctor about the risks pertaining to your own condition and have him/her explain it to you thoroughly. It is important that you fully understand the severity of the risks involved.

You can also ask about the things you can do on your part to minimize those risks – this might involve making necessary lifestyle changes and visiting your cardiologist frequently for regular assessment.

6. What can I expect for future visits?

Depending on the severity of your heart condition, you might need to keep in touch with your cardiologist often to closely monitor the state of your heart. In certain serious heart diseases, patients are asked to visit their cardiologists at least once or twice a month. Ask your doctor about how often you need to drop by the clinic and how long the appointments generally take, so you can make appropriate changes in your schedule.

Also, inquire about the tests and procedures that’ll be likely performed on you during your future visits. This will prepare you and give you an idea on what you can expect.

*This list is compiled in no particular order.*

Common STDs in Women

Most of the common sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) or sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) do not show symptoms that is why they are left untreated in most cases. There is also the stigma that comes with being infected despite the rise in number of victims. STDs should never be ignored because you’re ashamed of getting the right diagnosis and treatment.

It’s important to get treated as soon as possible to avoid possible complications such as cancer, HIV/AIDS and infertility. Fortunately, STD screening in Singapore is available for anyone who wants to get tested.

STD Symptoms in Women

Most women will not see symptoms at all and even flu-like signs can be mistaken for another illness. However, you should still look out for the following and get an STD screening as soon as possible:

  1. Unusual discharge or leakage
  2. Itching, tenderness or pain in the genital area
  3. Appearance of blisters, rashes, ulcers and warts in the genital area
  4. Painful urination, intercourse and menstruation
  5. Changes in urination
  6. Swelling of joints
  7. Pain in the rectum or surrounding area
  8. Rectal discharge, bleeding and pain
  9. Persistent sore throat
  10. Pain in the pelvic and lower back areas
  11. Irregular menstrual cycle and spotting or bleeding between periods

Common STDs in Women

  1. Chlamydia

Women with chlamydia are infected with the Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria. A lot of people confuse this condition with gonorrhea because they exhibit the same symptoms, if there are any symptoms at all. Chlamydia is not to be confused with another sexually transmitted disease called lymphogranuloma venereum which is caused by one of the three strains of Chlamydia trachomatis.

If chlamydia is not treated at http://www.kensingtonfamilyclinic.com/std-hiv/std-testing in Singapore there is an increased risk of infertility, pelvic inflammatory disease, cervicitis, Bartholinitis or blockage of the Bartholin’s glands, and ectopic pregnancy. A pregnant woman with chlamydia is at risk of having a preterm labor and an unhealthy and possibly infected newborn. Look out for the following symptoms: abnormal discharges, painful urination, bleeding between periods, pain in the lower back or pelvic area, painful intercourse, and fever and nausea. Chlamydia STD screening uses the nucleic acid amplification tests.

  1. Gonorrhea

The symptoms in gonorrhea don’t often appear in most cases. If there are any, the signs are not visible until three weeks after getting infected. The symptoms are almost similar to those experienced by women with chlamydia such as painful and frequent urination, irregular periods and bleeding between menstrual cycles, abnormal discharges, and itching, irritation or pain in the genital area.

Rectal and oral gonorrhea could cause throat infection or sore throat and rectal pain, irritation and discharge. STD testing for gonorrhea involves a swab test. The doctor will get a sample from the infected site such as the cervix, rectum or throat then the sample is sent to a laboratory in Singapore for culture and identification of the bacteria. Another STD test is called polymerase chain reaction or PCR which uses DNA probes and amplification.

  1. Human Papillomavirus

Human papillomavirus or HPV is the most common sexually transmitted disease among women all over the world. Currently, there are over 100 known types of the virus. Some of these can lead to cancer while the others cause warts to appear on some parts of the body. The most commonly affected areas are the vagina, vulva, cervix, anus, and rectum among women. Most HPV infections disappear after a year or so and are harmless. Nevertheless, you should still get an STD testing to determine if you have high-risk HPV infection.

In women, the most common form of cancer caused by HPV is cervical cancer. There are no visible symptoms even for high-risk HPV that is why it’s important for women to have a Pap test and a follow-up HPV screening if there are findings in the Pap test result. A Pap test is done to determine if there is a development of abnormal cells or changes in the cells in the cervix. The HPV test on the other hand is done to find the virus that is causing the said changes.

  1. Herpes

There are 8 types of human herpes simplex viruses currently known today. Two of the most common are herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) or herpes of the mouth and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) or genital herpes. An infected person will see lesions on the infected areas. Some of these sores are not visible to the eye, however, especially if they appear inside the genitals.

The person will also experience the following symptoms: flu-like symptoms such as fever and body pain and swollen lymph nodes. The lesions will disappear after a while although they can still recur if the condition is not treated. There are also cases where the HSV2 has remained dormant for years in the body.

  1. Syphilis

The infection is caused by the Treponema pallidum bacteria. Although the number of cases have gone down in recent years, the infection is still present among sexually-active persons. Even the use of contraception cannot stop an infected person from passing on the infection. Syphilis is described in four stages. In the early stage, a chancre or ulcer appears on the infected area. In later stages, the following symptoms might appear: rashes, sore throat, headaches, alopecia or hair loss, and heart and brain damage. You can get an STD testing for syphilis through blood testing.

Diagnosing STDs

One complication of chlamydia and gonorrhea is pelvic inflammatory disease or PID. This condition refers to the infection of the fallopian tubes and/or womb. Some STDs if not treated early can increase the chance of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, infection of newborns, cervical cancer, and heart and brain disease (caused by untreated syphilis). Doctors in Singapore recommend that women should get a Pap smear once every 3 or 5 years especially those who are sexually active. There are also cases where women get STDs as a result of sexual assault. If this is the case, the doctor will take steps to prevent infections such as prescription of antibiotics, an HPV and hepatitis vaccine, and HIV antiviral medication.